Ancillary (Website Homepage) Draft 1

I have created the first draft of my second ancillary text. I struggled to create this as I couldn’t find any simple websites which allowed me to have the specific layout I wanted. In the end, I ended up using SquareSpace, which gave me a variety of templates which I could edit to my own liking. However, I am not completely happy with what I have created so far as I wanted to include quite a lot more. Nevertheless, I will be getting feedback on this first draft to see what my target audience would expect to from my website homepage.




Ancillary (Magazine Review) Draft 1

I have created my first ancillary text, which is my magazine review. I created this on Photoshop and am quite happy with how it turned out. Although, I may change some things that I have written in my review once I have edited more of my film. 

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As I am happy with this draft, I have decided to get feedback from my target audience so I know how to improve. I have set up some questions on google forms, ready for some feedback on this draft.


Main Video Draft 1

I have completed my first draft of my short film, ‘Tranquillity’. It does not contain all the footage and is only the first couple of minutes as this is where I currently am in the editing process. I still have a lot to do and this draft is not to the standard I was hoping for it to be, however I know what to improve in order to improve its quality.

This is the first draft of my short film:

As I already have a lot to change in order to improve my short film, I will not be getting feedback from this specific draft. However, as feedback from my target audience is important, I will be getting feedback from my next draft, where I would have made some changes. 

Here are some things I plan on changing in order to improve my video: 


Personally, I think that the audio is the biggest problem of this first draft. The voice over is not clear, and some clicks can be heard in the background from the voice over clip. Obviously, this is not professional and affects the standard of my film. In order to fix this issue, I will be re-recording my voice over on Sunday 10th December and ensuring it is clear with no unnecessary sounds in the background. I have blogged about the difficulties I have previously faced with my voice over, however I now have a simple way to record it whilst ensuring it is clear and is good quality. I have booked out the camera from school as well as a microphone, and will record the voice over straight onto the camera. Hopefully this will go to plan, and if not I will be speaking to a media teacher about this. 

On the other hand, I really like the background music I have used in the background as I think it creates a slow, emotional tone to the film and sets a sad tone, which is what I was aiming for. It also fits in well with the tone of the protagonist’s voice in the voice over, which makes it more effective. Nevertheless, I will be asking my target audience what they think of this music in the screening of my second draft, as it is important they like it and it creates an emotional impact on them.


One foolish, yet significant I made in this draft is the spelling of my film title. The name of my film is ‘Tranquillity’, however I spelt it with one ‘L’ instead of two. Although this seems like a minor mistake, it is significant as it is not professional to misspell the title of my own film. Luckily, I noticed that it was spelt wrong and will have the correct spelling for my second draft. 

On the bright side, I am happy that I have the title for my film decided already as it saves me time to think of the name. I came up with the title for it after listening to my voice over for the first time as it ends with wanting to be tranquil, therefore I thought it would fit well. However, if my audience comment negatively about this title, I will consider changing it as it is important that my film has an emotional impact on my audience. 


I think that some of the shots in my film need to be cut short by a second or two as the filming does not seem precise in each shot. This is not a significant issue as it is easy to cut clips and I do not need to re-shoot any of the clips that I have used. To me, it seems that a few adjustments with the cutting and editing in general will help perfect my film and just make it seem a lot more professional, and my audience will enjoying the film a lot more. 

Overall thoughts 

Overall, I think that I have done an average job of putting the first minute and a half of my footage together and editing it so it all fits in well together. It is obvious that quite a few changes need to be made, which I will do soon. I aim for my second draft to be much more improved than this and ready for some feedback from my audience. 

However, I will not continue editing straight away as I will be putting all my focus on creating my ancillary texts right now so they will be ready by the 11th of this month as this is the deadline for the first draft. Therefore, this is the most significant thing for me to focus on right now. Once I have created my first drafts of these ancillary texts, I will continue to edit my short film and have my second draft ready as soon as I can. 

Despite this, on Sunday 10th December, I will be re-shooting a scene for my film as the original footage was too shaky. Therefore, I decided to re-shoot the scene and use a tripod. It is important to do this as soon as I possibly can so it will be ready for when I want to continue editing my film. I will also be recording my voice over once again, and am also hoping to interview my protagonist which will be used in one of my ancillary texts (the website), as it will make it more professional and intriguing to my audience and viewers. 

In conclusion, I am happy with the stage I am currently at as I know exactly what I need to do to perfect everything and have a clear schedule of when to do it all. I also know where to find help if I need it, although I am positive that everything will go according to plan. I will keep my blog updated with everything I will be doing in regards to my film and my ancillary texts, and if it goes well or not. 

Ancillary Text Mock Ups

For my ancillary texts, I am creating a website homepage for my film as well as a magazine review page featuring my film. In order to prepare myself for this process, I have created a mock up of both of these ancillary texts as a plan for each of them. These mock ups mainly focus on the layout of each ancillary text, as well as including smaller details, such as typography. 

This mock up is going to help me when creating my magazine review page as I have a clear layout to follow, as well as the font, size and colour for each section already decided. Therefore, the process of making the page will be simple as I will not be spending any time on picking out fonts and sizes. 

This is the mock up I have created for my magazine review page:

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The research I did over summer helped me decide on what type of layout I wanted to use for my magazine review page. As I mainly analysed magazine reviews from Empire magazine, I used their layout as guidance for my own. On some of their pages they had reviews of various movies, whereas other were based on one movie only. As I am only reviewing my own short film, I decided to follow the layout that Empire include of one movie review only. This also gives me more space to reflect my movie accurately, therefore I think it is the best decision.

This is what influenced my magazine review page mock up:


As seen above, there is an image from the movie which is included on the page and takes about exactly half of the amount of space. I used this as inspiration and decided to include an image from my own film, which will take up 60% of the page instead of 50% as I want it to stand out more and make it appeal to my target audience. However, it will be placed on the top section of the page just like the review page above. The layout will be extremely similar to the one seen above, as I am also going to have three columns, because it is more professional than having one or two, and four or more may be too much. My title is also going to bigger and bolder than any other text on the page, however I am going to place on top of the image instead of in the first column, in order to make it stand out more. I have decided to include the same information in my page as the one seen above; there will be a star rating (out of five) at the top, next to the release date and the certified age rating. Below this, there will be information on the director, cast and a brief description of the plot. This will be followed by a thick, black line which will separate all this information to the review itself. I think that this will make the whole page look professional, which is what I am aiming for. 

Similarly, I have also created a mock up for my website homepage, in order to help ease the process of creating the website homepage. 

This is the website homepage mock up I have created: 

mock up 2

This is the basic layout of my website homepage which was influenced by the research I did over summer. However, this is the specific website homepage that influenced me the most as I felt it was most effective: 

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It is clear to see that the layout of my own homepage is quite similar to the one above, however when I actually create mine, it will obviously look different. Nevertheless, I aim on making sure my homepage is just as effective as the one for ‘Gone Girl’. 

Although the layouts are similar, my font is going to be very different, meaning that the whole style of my website homepage is going to be different. This is good as my short film is going to be quite unique and I want my website homepage to reflect this. 

In all of my research, I realised that they all used images (normally a screenshot from a scene in the movie) as the background for the homepage. Personally, I think that this is quite effective as an insight is given to the viewer and they learn about the general genre and themes that are involved in the film. The general use of colours also reflects this, which is a significant part of the image. Therefore, I have decided to follow convention and do the same. As I am currently in the editing process, I have an image that I want to use in mind as the first scene of my film is quite effective and think it will be appropriate to use as my background image for my homepage. It will give my viewers an insight into my film which is important, as the image will be a close up shot of my protagonist. Her serious facial expressions will also highlight the main themes and genre of my film. 

As seen in the ‘Gone Girl’ website homepage, there is not a lot of writing. Once again, I will be following convention and also having minimum writing on my homepage so the viewers aren’t overwhelmed with writing. However, if some viewers wish to have more information on my short film, I will be creating other pages providing information. Viewers can visit these pages through the tabs at the top of the page, which I learnt is a convention of website homepages in general. 

I will also be including social media links at the top corner of my homepage, as seen in my mock up as it is on the majority of movie promotion websites and it is more professional. Therefore, I will be creating social media profiles for my film also. 

The only thing that I am not a hundred percent sure about is the fonts and sizes I will be using throughout my homepage. I have rough ideas which I have included in my mock up, however this may change as I will see what works best when I am creating my real website. 


Wednesday 8th November:

In my short film, my main audio is going to be a voice over as the protagonist is going to be expressing her thoughts in this way. I feel that including a voice over is effective in a drama film which is important as my main purpose is to create an emotional impact on my audience. 

Initially, I had decided that I am going to record my voice over on Monday 6th November as it was most convenient for me and my protagonist, however this did not go to plan. I hadn’t prepared to record my voice over as much as I should have as there were many difficulties during this process.

First, there were no microphones from media for me to use as I had not previously booked any. Therefore, I decided to use my phone to record the voice over, so I went into an empty room in school and started to record it. However, when I played it back, it was of quite a low quality so I realised that I cannot record it on my phone. I then got a microphone from a different department in school and used an empty music/studio room. But unfortunately, this also did not go to plan as the sound on the computer was also not clear, despite using a good microphone. This is because other sounds from the background were picked up and there was a buzzing sound coming out from the computer which was also being picked up. 

I then ran out of time and decided to talk to a media teacher for some advice on the best way to record my voice over. After doing so, I learnt that I need to plug a microphone into a computer and ensure I am in a silent room. Therefore, I booked a microphone from media for Friday 10th November which will allow me to test it by myself over the weekend so I know exactly how to use it and ensure it is of high quality, so I am ready to record my actual voice over sometime next week which should all go to plan. 

Saturday 11th November:

I have tested the quality of sound by connecting the microphone to my laptop and tested the quality of the audio, and it turned out to be of quite high quality. I did a few testers as I tested the sound without the mic, with the mic close to my lips, with the mic clipped onto my top, and also holding the mic in my hand further away from my mouth. After listening to all of these audio clips, I realised that the best quality was with the mic clipped onto my top as it wasn’t too close but also picked up my voice clearly.

As soon as I tested this, I called my protagonist as it is her voice that will be used for the whole voice over and ensured that she is free next week to record it. We will either be recording it at her house, or maybe at school. If we decide to record it at school, then we will be using a media room when it is free and, therefore should be quiet. Luckily, I have a timetable of when the media room is free, so I can plan ahead of when to record my voice over. 

As I tested the mic on my laptop, I will be taking my laptop to school rather than using any at school because I now know exactly how to record it and it will be a lot easier for me. I will then make a copy and transfer it to the same computer that has all my film footage on and begin to edit my film. 

Thursday 16th November:

Due to an injury, I have been set behind with the process of recording my voice over as well as editing my main film. My plan was to have recorded my voice over by now so I would already be in the editing stage, giving me more time to ensure I make the film to the best of my ability. However, as this did not happen due to the current situation, I will be recording my voice over on Monday 20th November, which will allow me to begin to edit my main film from then on. 

However, as I have had many setbacks in recording my voice over, I decided to ask my protagonist to send me a recording of the first section of the voice over recorded on her phone, as I need to create my animatic. At first, I wanted to use my real audio for the animatic, however I think it would be best for me to create my animatic as soon as I can, and it does not matter too much about the quality of sound. This will keep me on track with my work as I will not have to worry about both, my short film and the animatic once I have my real audio.

Monday 20th November: 

Finally, I have completed my voice over and I am now ready to begin to edit my short film. Luckily, everything went well during the process of recording my voice over as there were no significant problems, and I now have everything I need for my film.

As planned, I brought my laptop into school to record my voice over as I have tested the voice recorder on it and I know it is of a high quality. Therefore, this was the best way for me to record my real voice over as I need it to be clear, so it can make my short film more effective. 

Now, I am going to be focusing on editing my film as that is the next most important thing for me, as well as beginning to create my ancillary texts. Hopefully, everything goes to plan from now on and I am not set back with anymore problems. Once I have got my first draft of my short film, I am going to then start to create my ancillary texts which shouldn’t take me over two weeks. Therefore, I aim to have my first draft of my short film ready by 1st December as I would then have 11 days to create the first drafts of my ancillary texts, which seems doable to me as I am good with time management as long as everything goes to plan. 

Although there were some issues and setbacks whilst trying to record my voice over, I am happy with how it turned out and that it is now finally completed. 


I have created an animatic to help portray a visual representation of my short film. It is essentially just images of each shot put together from my storyboard along with any audio I will be using in my short film. As my short film is going to be including a voice over as well as some music in the background, I decided to include both in my animatic.

As an animatic is meant to present my short film through audio and storyboard, I wanted to use the actual audio that I am using in my final film, however I had some issues whilst trying to record my voice over, which has prolonged this process quite a lot as I was planning to have it all done by now but I haven’t. As this is a quite a significant issue, I didn’t want this to affect my animatic as I wanted to ensure I create it as soon as possible so all my planning documents are complete and once my voice over is complete, I can focus fully on editing my short film and on creating my ancillary texts. That being so, I asked my protagonist to record the beginning part of the voice over on her phone and send it to me so I can use it in my animatic as I wanted my animatic to portray my short film as well as it possibly can. 

In order to create an accurate representation of my short film, I have also included some music that I will also be using in my short film as it creates an emotional effect, which I wanted to get across in my animatic. Personally, I think that including this music in my animatic allows me to get my main themes and genres across, as it also fits in well with the voice over, highlighting the drama genre. 

This is the animatic I have created:

I honestly think that I have created an animatic that reflects my short film quite well, as each shot is clearly portrayed and fits in well with the music and voice over. I think that this is important as my audience are able to understand the general story line, as well as getting an insight of what to expect from the film itself. 

As can be seen, I have not included any zooms or pans in my animatic as my main intention of creating this animatic was to portray the themes and story line of my film rather than emphasising any camera shots, angles or movement. Although this is an important aspect of my film, I didn’t want to over complicate my animatic and just wanted to keep it simple and easy to understand. 

My short film is not going to include much dialogue as the main audio I intend on using is some music in the background to help set the correct mood, as well as a voice over to express the protagonist’s thoughts. Therefore, I have not included any dialogue in my animatic as there is only going to be two or three lines of it within the whole film and if I had included this in my animatic, it would only create confusion. 

Although I am happy with my animatic, the drawings could have been more detailed as it would express what is happening in each shot more clearly, as well as presenting each shot type better. I found it difficult to present each shot through drawings as I am not an artistic person, nevertheless I tried my best to portray the shots as well as I could. 

As I took the images from my storyboard, there will be some slight changes in shots and scenes in my real film but I think that I have created the right mood and does reveal that my short film is going to be serious and quite emotional. To me, this is the most important aspect of my animatic because the audience are able to interpret the general story line, themes, genres and style of film I aim to create as this is not going to change with a couple of slightly different shots or scenes. 

Before I created my animatic, I watched some professional ones for influence and to give me an idea of how to create it. The main one that stuck out to me was the animatic for ‘Wicked’ as it presented the general story line as well as the main themes through the images, as well as the music. I really liked the fact that the music fit well with the images which influenced me to try and do the same thing through my own animatic.

This is the animatic for ‘Wicked’:

It can be clearly seen that this animatic is of an extremely high standard, as expected. Each shot is clearly presented as well as the movement of each character. A major aspect of this is the great artistic skill which has brought the drawings to life, which I also wanted to embed into my animatic, however I am not good at drawing and I didn’t want to hire someone to draw it for me as I am the only person who has the perfect picture of what I want to create in my head, and I don’t think anyone else would be able to present this through some drawings. Therefore, I took the risk of drawing it all myself, knowing that my story line and character movement isn’t going to be presented to the best of its ability through the drawings itself. However, I still made this decision as I knew that one of the most effective parts of my short film is going to be the audio, therefore I also knew that this would get the message that I want to get across in my animatic too. 

Overall, I am happy with how my animatic turned out as I think it gets across everything I wanted it to, including the general themes, genre and story line. 

Audience Theories

Effects Model

The effects model (effects theory) is how media affects society and how society affects media. For example, certain video games that include a lot of violence can have a negative impact on its users as they enforce violence. A good example of this is when a teenage boy murdered his best friend in 2004, and the video game ‘Manhunt’ was banned from the UK because the murder was similar to a murder in the game, and therefore was believed to be of influence. This model is important because media really can influence certain individuals of society, in both positive and negative ways. 

Another example of the effects model is TV shows, such as Eastenders. Different cultures are presented in contrasting ways, which arguably could be a reflection of how society sees itself. For instance, the majority of young people are presented in a negative way which is an interpretation that a part of society may have in real life, whether it be true or not. 

Two-Step Flow Model

The two-step flow of communication model argues that most people form opinions under the influence of opinion leaders, who are influenced by mass media; ideas flow from mass media to opinion leaders, and from them to a wider population.


An opinion leader is someone who is close to mass media and its messages, and is an influential person. Whereas, the people who are influenced by these opinion leaders are not really informed about the media and look up to these opinion leaders. 

The hypothesis of this theory was introduced by Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson and Hazel Gaudet after they were doing some research into the decisions of voters in the 1940 US elections. They discovered that most voters got their information about the candidates from other people who read about the campaign in the newspapers, not directly from the media. They then concluded that word-of-mouth transmission of information plays an important role in the communication process and that mass media only has a limited influence on most individuals.

Despite this, the theory was developed by Elihu Katz and Lazarsfeld, who released a book together called ‘Personal Influence’ which is referred to as the handbook to this theory. This book explains that people’s reaction to media messages are mediated by communication with members of their social environment for example, family, friends, work and religious associations as these interactions have more influence on a person’s decision making process and behaviour rather than information from the mass media. 

Agenda Setting Model

The agenda setting model describes the “ability of the news media to influence the importance placed on the topics of the public agenda”. It argues that the mass media determines the issues that concern the public rather than the public’s views. The issues that receive the most attention in the news is what people talk about the most. This means that the media is determining what issues and stories the public thinks about. Therefore, when the media fails to address a particular issue, it becomes marginalised in the minds of the public.

For example, the idea of smoking to be seen negatively has risen in society. Before the media started to encourage anti-smoking, smoking was considered to be a personal health issue. However, due to the increase in anti-smoking advertisements, smoking is now see to be a public health issue rather than a personal one.

Uses and Gratifications Model

The uses and gratifications model is an approach to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. The question comes from other theories, “What does media do to people?” and “What do people do with media?”. It is argued that people choose specific media that will satisfy their needs. 

Katz, Blumler and Gurevitch researched into this model and came up with five reasons why people engage with media:

  • Cognitive – people want to be informed and educated.
  • Affective – people want to be able to have an emotional connection with certain people in certain situations, which then allows us to have an emotional response.
  • Personal integrative – to be influenced in our lives, eg. we look for certain traits of inspirational people that influence us to do better in our lives.
  • Social integrative – to enhance social interaction, eg. social media. 
  • Tension Release – to escape from the stresses of daily life. 

Cultivation Theory

The cultivation theory explores the long term effects of television. It argues that the more that people watch television, the more likely they are to believe that social reality aligns with the “reality” portrayed on television. The key idea of the cultivation theory is that exposure to television cultivates viewer’s perception of reality over time. George Gerbner and Larry Gross developed this theory in 1976 and said, “Television is a medium of the socialisation of most people into standardised roles and behaviours. Its function is in a word, enculturation”. 

This theory is emphasises with three main assumptions:

  • Television is different from other forms of mass media.
  • Television shapes the way individuals within society think and relate to each other. 
  • Television’s effects are limited. 

Gerbner’s initial work specifically looked at the effects of television violence on American audiences. He focuses on high-use television users and their views on the crime they are watching on television in relation to what is happening in real life. He argues that since a high percentage of television programs include violent or crime-related content, viewers who spend a lot of their time watching television are inevitably exposed to crime and violenceTherefore, an increased exposure causes viewers to make judgements about the world in terms of it being a more violent and crime filled environment, when in reality, this is not the case. 

In 1968, Gerbner carried out a survey to prove this theory. From his results he placed television viewers into three categories; “light viewers” (less than 2 hours a day), “medium viewers” (2–4 hours a day) and “heavy viewers” (more than 4 hours a day). He found that heavy viewers held beliefs and opinions similar to those portrayed on television rather than the real world, proving his theory. Those who would be classified as heavy viewers to Gerbner experience shyness, loneliness, and depression much more than those who either do not watch television or who do not watch television nearly as much. From this study, Gerbner also began working on his ‘Mean World Index’, an idea that argues that heavy consumption of violent related television content leads the viewer to believe the world is more dangerous than it actually is. “In most of the surveys Gerbner conducted, the results reveal a small but statistically significant relationship between TV consumption and fear about becoming the victim of a crime. The question at the start of the chapter is illustrative: Those with light viewing habits predict their weekly odds of being a victim are 1 out of 100; those with heavy viewing habits fear the risk 1 out of 10. Actual crime statistics indicate that 1 out of 10,000 is more realistic.”

Reception Theory

Stuart Hall’s reception theory states that media texts are encoded by the producer. This means that whoever produces the text, fills it with values and messages. The text is then decoded by the audience, however it may not be in the same way that the producer intended as it depends on the person. A text can be decoded in one of three ways:

  • Dominant or preferred reading – this is when the audience interprets the text in the way the producer intended. They agree with the producer’s ideology and the producer’s message has been delivered. 
  • Negotiated reading – this is when the audience understands message that the producer has put across, however they also have their own input and understanding of the text. 
  • Oppositional reading – this is when the audience disagrees with the producer’s ideology and has their own views and interpretation of the text, which is usually the complete opposite as they reject the meaning completely.

Selective Perception

Selective perception is when people understand and acknowledge what they want to in media, but ignore the things they do not agree with. 

Selective Exposure

Selective exposure is when individuals favour information that backs up their pre-existing views and beliefs, whilst avoiding any contradictory information. 

Selective Retention

Selective retention is the process where people remember messages close to their interests and that relate to their personal views and beliefs, rather than remembering messages that oppose personal beliefs. 



Typography is the style and appearance of printed text. Typography is 95% of design and is a driving force in all forms of communication art. Magazines, websites and apps all consist of text, and is actually a significant part. We never look into the typography or think about it as much because it is so common and we always expect to see it. 

This is quite an important aspect of any type of film as it helps establish the themes and genres involved. Normally, in film the only text included is the opening credits which helps give an insight into the movie, as well as its themes and tone. 

This is the opening credits to ‘Star Wars’: 

This opening credits is extremely iconic and has been used for all the ‘Star Wars’ movies. Evidently, there is not much happening on the screen besides the text that can be seen, yet it is still iconic and influential. Not only are different style of typography involved, the perspective of the text has been altered which makes it quite engaging for the audience. It also fits in well with the audio, allowing the audience to interpret the themes and tone of the film itself. 

Similarly, the typography used in the opening credits for the movie ‘Se7en’ is also extremely reflective of the movie’s themes and genre. 

This is the opening credits to ‘Se7en’:

‘Se7en’ is a thriller movie, which is portrayed through the typography as it fits in with the dark, mysterious tone that is created through the editing, sound and mise en scene. It also gives an insight into the movie. Kyle Cooper, the director of this said, “The typography itself, which would likely break several guild legibility rules in modern times, was hand-etched into black-surface scratch board and manipulated during the film transfer process to further smear and jitter it. This transfer was then cut up and reassembled during post production to add a final layer of temporal distress.” This reveals how important typography is as a whole because if it does not fit in well with the main themes or tone, then it will stand out negatively to the audience and will not be seen to be of a high standard. 

Personally, I have not decided on what typography I would want to include in my short film as it is an important decision to be made, and should be made during the editing process as I will have more of an idea of what fits in well with my specific film. I will also need to make a decision regarding typography when creating my ancillary texts as I will be creating a website homepage and magazine review. However, my 30 research posts will help me make these decisions, as well as any other research I have done. Therefore, it is important to research into it before hand as it will influence my decision later. Luckily, I also researched into typography for my AS film, so I have read and transferred some of that research below as these are the minor details that will impact my media texts as a whole. 

Typeface is a particular set of design. Each typeface has a specific weight, style, condensation, width, slant, italicisation, ornamentation, and designer or foundry. Here are some examples of some typefaces:


font is a set of printable or displayable text characters in a specific style and size. The type design for a set of fonts is the typeface and variations of this design form the typeface family. For example, Helvetica is a typeface family, Helvetica italic is a typeface, and Helvetica italic 10-point is a font.

A serif is a small line attached to the end of a stroke in a letter or symbol. A typeface with serifs is called a serif typeface. A typeface without serifs is called sans serif or sans-serif, from the French sans, meaning “without”.



Font size, style and colour is very important in typography. The use of large, capitalised text is important as the text could come across in a certain way, sometimes as if the text is being shouted. It all depends on how it is used and in what way. Same goes for style as different styles of writing create different effects. For example, fancy writing gives off a more elegant, formal effect. The colour is also important as sometimes, colours such as red and white make the text stand out in a dark background. All three of these thing must be taken into consideration when creating typography.

Letter-spacing, usually called tracking by typographers, refers to a consistent degree of increase (or sometimes decrease) of space between letters to affect density in a line or block of text.



As can be seen in the image above, the bottom word has more space between the letters, which to me, stands out more than the word above. There are 2 types of tracking: Loose tracking and tight tracking. The word at the top is an example of tight tracking, whereas the word at the bottom in an example of loose tracking.

There are 4 modes of alignment:

Centred: This is when text is symmetrically aligned along an axis in the middle of a column. This is often used for the title of a work, headlines, and for poems and songs. It can also be commonly found on signs, flyers, and similar documents where grabbing the attention of the reader is the main focus, or visual appearance is important.

Justified: This is where the spaces between words, and sometimes letters are stretched or compressed to align both the left and right ends of each line of text.

Flush Left: The text of a paragraph is aligned on the left-hand side with the right-hand side ragged. This is the default style of text alignment on webpages for left-to-right text.

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As the due date for the first draft of my short film and my two ancillary texts is 11th December, I aimed to get all the filming for my short film completed by 1st November. This will then allow me to have over a month to complete my editing and to create my ancillary texts; magazine review and website homepage. Obviously, I am going to have to complete my editing first in order to create my ancillary texts as they will be based on the film I create. Also, as I have 5 weeks to do all this, I also have enough time to do any re-shoots if necessary. 

The first scene I filmed was the classroom scene which had to be filmed in school. Therefore, I filmed it on Monday 16th October at 2pm. This is because this was the only time that all my actors were free to film as nobody had any lessons and some people were unable to stay after school. Nevertheless, this was convenient as everyone was available and I got this specific scene shot within an hour. After this scene was finished, most of my actors left, however Tara and Aaron remained as we decided we still had enough time to film the scene of him bullying her. Therefore, we changed location but remained in school as this scene had to be filmed in a school corridor by some lockers. This scene did not take long at all as it only consisted of one shot and was completed within half an hour. For both these scenes, my producer, Erin Horsfield was with me behind the camera to ensure everything was going well and I did not miss anything. This was extremely helpful to me as it made everything a lot easier as I had another pair of eyes behind the camera. She was also in the classroom scene but after each take, she would come behind the camera to ensure it was filmed properly. 

I filmed the rest of the scenes on Saturday 28th October as the only actor I needed was my protagonist, Tara and most of the filming took place at her house, therefore this was the most convenient day to film. We filmed in the afternoon and we finished all the filming within four hours as we also took some small breaks. We spent most of this time filming the scenes in her house as that is where the majority took place. After we completed all those scenes, we went to a graveyard near her house and did some filming there but that did not take long as we had completed it all within 20 minutes.

While I was filming all my scenes, I had my script, storyboard and shot list with me for guidance. Although, I didn’t refer to my shot list as much because my script and storyboard helped me a lot. As my film doesn’t include much dialogue, I used my storyboard the most as it clearly presented exactly what shots I needed, however my script was useful at times too. 

Despite the fact I was following my script and storyboard, I ended up making some changes. I eliminated one scene which was the one of the protagonist’s mother shouting at her. This is because the actor I had casted for this decided she no longer felt comfortable doing so. As this was very last minute, I had to make a quick decision which was to exclude this whole scene and replace it with another. In the end, I filmed a scene of the protagonist receiving a threatening text message from her bully which results in the protagonist making the decision to overdose, instead of her mother shouting abuse at her which would have led her to making the decision to overdose. 

Overall, my filming went really well as I was able to get all the footage I need in a good amount of time. I now have enough time to record my voice over and edit everything. However, I have looked over all my footage and I think I may need a re-shoot for one small scene which was filmed in a graveyard. This is because I didn’t use a tripod as I thought a hand held effect would be best for this scene, however the outcome is not how I expected it to be. Nevertheless, during the editing process, I am going to see how it looks once it has been edited and if it does not look how I want it to, I will be re-shooting this scene on Saturday 18th November. 

I plan on recording my voiceover on Monday 6th November in school as it is likely I will be using a music room if they have the correct equipment for me to record a voice over. If not, I will record the voiceover on my phone but I must ensure I am in a quiet area to ensure no other sound is picked up. No matter how I record it, I will do a test recording and listen to it on the editing software first to ensure it is of high quality and sounds as effective as I aim for it to be. 

I am going to begin editing as soon as I have recorded my voice over as I will then have all the footage and audio I need and I can start to piece my film together. I will be doing all my editing at school. I have checked when the media room is available and have matched it with my schedule, as well as my co-editors. I will be editing on Monday and Friday mornings with Tara Hodgson-Love, as well as Tuesday and Thursday afternoons on my own, or with my other co-editor, Aaron Gill. I am hoping to get all my editing done as I have a lot of time to do so, however if I think I am behind with my editing towards the end of November, then I will also be editing on Wednesday afternoons and evenings.


To make my short film to the best of my ability, I have hired specific individuals to help me make it as great as it can be. I have hired actors based off of their acting skills and chose specific people who I know will be right for each role. My short film will be based on one main character, therefore I had to make sure I chose the best person to play this role. I am also going to include other characters who play minor roles, but I have also thought about who to hire for those roles in detail. 

Along with actors, I have also hired a producer and two co-editors to help me with the filming and editing process, as the whole production must be of a high standard. Personally for me, I think that hiring these people is going to benefit me a lot, as I will have the access of multiple skills, which I would not have without these people.

This is a list of who I have hired and why:


Actor: Tara Hodgson-Love
taraDue to my target audience research, I have decided to cast a female protagonist in my film as it fits well with my story line. Due to this character suffering from depression, I have chosen someone who has personal experience with this as it will help create realism, which is an important aspect of the drama genre. It is also important that my main actor is actually good at acting. Therefore, I have chosen Tara as she is a drama student and she aspires to be a professional actor in the future. Therefore, playing the lead role in my short film will help her get experience, as well as helping me make my film to the best it can be. I have previously watched Tara’s performances and I know that she has a talent for acting.

Main bully

Actor: Aaron Gill


As the main bully, I have decided to cast Aaron as he is a confident individual and would be a good fit for this role. His bold personality matches well with this character and was exactly what I had originally envisioned. He is also a drama student, which means that being in my media film may help him in the future if he wishes to pursue acting. Although I have not seen any of his previous performances, I am certain that he will act well in this role and really give his best. When I first asked him if he would be willing to be in my short film, he immediately said yes, which proves to me that he is enthusiastic and will really try to bring this character to life.

Protagonist’s mother

Actor: Linda Hodgson-Love 

To play the role of the protagonist’s mother, I decided to cast Tara’s real mother as she would feel most comfortable filming with Tara. It also helps create realism as they really do share a mother-daughter relationship which means that nothing will seem awkward or forced in the film. Although, Linda (Tara’s mother) has agreed to be in my film, she does not want her face to be shown. This does not really affect my film as I only need a shot of her slapping/hitting the protagonist. In fact, I think that this will create more emphasis on the protagonist as I will be using a medium close up shot of the mother’s hand as it hits the protagonist. Her voice will also be included in the background as she will be yelling at the protagonist too. This is why I have not included a photo of her.


Actors: Sam Mugglestone, Hannah Lewis, Max Allen, Tae Horsfield, Erin Horsfield, Harry Henson, Jack James, James Irving. 

In my film, I will be including a scene which takes place in a school classroom. In order to make this seem realistic, I am need of some extra actors to help fill up the classroom. Therefore, I decided to cast some of my friends to help me create a realistic lesson scene. I asked as many people as I could, as they do not have to be great at acting as some of them will just have to sit on a chair and pretend to be working, whereas others will be talking to each other and throwing balls of paper at the protagonist. Only one or two of these actors will have some dialogue to say, but as it is only one line, I do not need any professional actors for this specific scene. Also, as this scene is set in a school, it was easy for me to cast people as I am of the exact age group that would be expected to be in this scene, therefore it did not take me a lot of time to cast these extra actors. 


Erin Horsfield


Throughout both, the filming and editing process, Erin will be supervising everything I do to make sure I don’t miss anything. She will be standing beside me when I am filming to make sure everything is being filmed properly, and will also be inputting suggestions on how the filming can be improved. She will also be there throughout some of my editing process as to ensure there is continuity throughout the film and also input some ideas on what makes my film most effective.

She is also going to be in one of my shots as an extra to help fill a classroom. However, she will also be looking over the footage with me in between shot to ensure everything is being filmed well.


Aaron Gill, Tara Hodgson-Love 

Editing is not my main strength, which is why I have hired two co-editors to help me with the process. Although Aaron and Tara also have the roles of being my main characters, they are also very good at editing as they have a lot more experience in it than me. Therefore, I have hired them to help me edit my film to make it the best it can possibly be. Nevertheless, I will be the main editor as I have a specific vision for my film and I am the only one who can make it that way. Aaron and Tara will be there to help improve my skills, but I will be making the final decisions. 

Overall, I think that I have made the right decisions with my casting as I think all these people will benefit my short film immensely as a lot more skills will be used throughout the filming and editing process.